Human disease biomarkers: challenges, advances, and trends in their validation


  • Jemmyson R. de Jesus Chemistry Department, Federal University of Viçosa
  • Marco A. Z. Arruda Chemistry Institute, University of Campinas, UNICAMP Campinas



Biomarker, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases, Viral infection, Validation, Analytical instrumentation


Biomarkers are important tools in the medical field, once they allow better prediction, characterization, and treatment of diseases. In this scenario, it is essential that biomarkers are highly accurate. Thus, biomarker validation is an essential part of ensuring the effectiveness of a biomarker. Validation of biomarkers is the process by which biomarkers are evaluated for accuracy and consistency, as well as their ability to inform the condition of health or disease. Although, there is no unique measure that can be used to determine the validity for all biomarkers, there are general criteria that all biomarkers must meet to be useful. In this work, we review the definition of biomarkers and discuss the validity components. We then critically discuss the main methods used to validate biomarkers and consider some examples of biomarkers of the diseases which most killer in the world (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and viral infections), highlighting the potential biochemical pathways of these biomarkers in the biological system. In addition, we also comment on the omic strategies used in the biomarker discovery process and conclude with information about perspectives in biomarker validation through imaging techniques.



2021-12-29 — Updated on 2022-04-27